Saturday, March 21, 2020
Justin Leung Mr. Cohn 5/25/17 Earth Science Environmental Effects of Global Warming: In order to talk about global warming, we must first learn what causes the greenhouse effect. A lot of the rays from the sun are absorbed by water vapor that is naturally in our atmosphere. Water vapor accounts for 80 percent of natural greenhouse warming. The remaining 20 percent is due to other gasses that are present in very small amounts. Carbon dioxide is also a big absorber of the sun's heat rays. Global warming will not just make sea levels rise, it will also affect sea life. Corals are intolerant of temperatures just a few degrees warmer than usual. Small increases in the temperature can kill corals. There have been problems with corals dying in the past few years because of increased water temperatures. Other marine life may migrate northward or southward because the waters are warmer. The warm water would make them think that they were in their natural habitat, when they were actually migrating toward the poles. Food would be scarce in their new habitat.Patterns of the c irculation of seawater are disturbed by global warming. Cold water moves along the sea floor towards the equator and warm water around the equator moves toward the poles across the surface of the ocean. It is known as thermohaline circulation. It is a very important process concerning ocean life. This circulation process brings oxygenated water to the sea floor. If this did not happen, Water along the sea floor would become depleted of the oxygen organisms need to survive.Fish, such as salmon, are also sensitive to the temperature of the water. During the summer when the water is warm, salmon have a higher metabolic rate. During the winter months, their metabolism slows down, which is good because less food is available. With global warming and increased water temperatures, salmon would have a higher metabolic rate, even if it were during the winter. Less food would be available for them and many salmon would die. Another impact of global warming will be that some diseases are likel y to be spread more easily. Mosquitoes are a major carrier of tropical diseases. Malaria outbreaks are usually confined to where the minimum winter temperature reaches no lower than 16 [degrees Celsius], according to the World Wide Fund for Nature, an independent conservation organization. Scientists are beginning to notice that malaria outbreaks are occurring outside these places. They are attributing this to increased temperatures from global warming. Places such as California, Texas, Florida, Michigan, and New York have had more cases of malaria. People from these states know that the summers have been very hot and humid lately. Malaria mosquitoes thrive in hot and humid weather. Increased temperatures and more rain in some areas will cause hot and humid weather, which will allow for mosquitoes to migrate to new places and spread the disease. A study suggests that malaria transmission would increase from 45% of the globe to 60%, if atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases reach con centrations equivalent to a doubling of CO2 since the industrial revolution1. Cholera and dengue fever are also carried by mosquitoes and thrive in warm and moist climates. As with malaria, more cholera and dengue fever outbreaks would occur because of migrating mosquitoes. As stated earlier, the warming of the oceans will increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and will make global warming a problem of increasing severity. There are other ways that this happens too. As the weather becomes warmer, more organic matter in the ground will be decomposed. This causes carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere: If average temperatures would rise by .3 degrees C per decade, soils will release an amount of CO2 equal to nearly 20 percent of the projected amount released by combustion of fossil fuels. Gas hydrates will also decompose with warmer temperatures. Gas hydrates are icelike solids in which molecules of gas, mainly methane, are locked in the structure of water and are usually found in frozen soil or in ocean sediments. Scientists have found that gas hydrates worldwide hold a total of 10,000 billion metric tons of carbon, twice the amount contained in all the known coal,
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Fiscal Stimulus - Three Key Ingredients In late 2008 and early 2009, you could not turn on a TV or open a newspaper without hearing the term fiscal stimulus over and over again. The idea behind fiscal stimulus is a rather simple one - a reduction in consumer demand has resulted in an unusually high number of idle resources such as unemployed workers and closed factories. Because the private sector will not spend, the government can take the place of the private sector by increasing spending, thus putting these idle resources back to work. With their newly found income, these workers will be able to spend again, increase consumer demand. As well, workers who already have jobs will have increased confidence in the state of the economy and will increase their spending as well. Once consumer spending rises enough, the government can slow their spending, as they are no longer needed to pick up the slack.The theory behind fiscal stimulus depends on three basic factors. As we will see, in practice it is difficult to have more tha n two of these met at any one time. Fiscal Stimulus Factor 1 - Provide Stimulus Through Use of Idle Resources Fiscal stimulus only works if it uses idle resources - resources that would not otherwise be used by the private sector. Using employees and equipment that would otherwise be used by the private sector is of no use; in fact, it is detrimental if the private sector projects are of more value than government ones. This crowding out of private spending by public spending must be avoided.To avoid crowding out, great care needs to be taken in a fiscal stimulus package to target industries and geographic areas that contain idle resources. Re-opening a closed automotive plant and rehiring the laid off workers is an obvious way to do so, though in the real world it is difficult to target a stimulus plan so precisely.We cannot forget that the choice of what type of fiscal stimulus is chosen by politicians, and thus is a political issue as much as it is an economic one. There is a great likelihood that a politically popular but non-stimulating package will be chosen over one that is politicall y less popular but more beneficial to the economy. Fiscal Stimulus Factor 2 - Started Quickly A recession is not a particularly long-lived phenomenon (though it often feels like one). Since World War II recessions have lasted between 6 and 18 months, with an average duration of 11 months (source). Suppose we are in a long recession of 18 months, with another 6 months of slow growth afterward. This gives us a 24-month window in which to provide fiscal stimulus. During this period a number of things have to happen: The government has to recognize that the economy is in recession. This takes longer than one might imagine - the National Bureau of Economic Research did not recognize that the United States was in a recession until 12 months after it started.The government needs to develop a stimulus package.The stimulus bill needs to be made law and pass all the necessary checks and balances.The projects involved in the stimulus package need to be started. There may be delays in this step, particularly if the project involves the building of physical infrastructure. Environmental assessments need to be completed, private sector contractors need to bid on the project, workers need to be hired. All of this takes time.The projects, ideally, need to be completed. If they are not completed before the economy fully recovers, then we will certainly have crowding out as these employees and equipment would be of use to the private sector. All of these items need to happen in the window of, at best, 24 months. Meeting this task seems quite difficult, if not impossible. Fiscal Stimulus Factor 3 - Perform Reasonably Well on a Benefit-Cost Test Ideally, we should get good value for our money - the government should spend taxpayer dollars on items of real value to the taxpayer. Government spending will necessarily raise GDP because in the calculation of GDP the value of any government project is determined by its cost, not its value. But building roads to nowhere does nothing to increase our true standard of living.There is also the political issue here - that projects may be chosen on their political popularity or value to special interests, rather than on their merits.Ã Fiscal Stimulus - Meeting One Factor Is Hard; Three Is Impossible In Fiscal Stimulus - Unlikely To Work in the Real World we will see that not only are some of these factors hard enough to meet on their own, it is nearly impossible to meet more than two of them at any one time.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Community Map - Essay Example Each map misses something important as when I compare my map with that of my neighbors I realize that I forget to draw a lot of stuff, but it does not matter because it shows how each of us envision our community (Glenn, 2004). It also shows how each person expresses his or her own interpretation of a community on his or her map. In my community, my neighbors are very close to one another because the majority of us are Haitians, which makes us strong. We speak of the similarity of language, eat same food and dress the same way. In contrary, we do not support each other as they do in Haiti. I personally did my own research about community economics. In order for a community to be powerful, each of us must practice group economics that means patronize each other businesses so our money can be osculated within our community. An example is, we need to control more businesses and resources in our community instead of having someone else that comes from a different community that has a different culture ruling all of us (Glenn, 2004). We can buy out politicians or at least rent them out so they can implement a new law that would benefit us in the long run. Anybody thinks by voting you automatically control your politicians; you are delusional. By having a business in your community, you can afford to write a cheque to your local politicians and support them in their next campaign (Glenn, 2004). Next time you decide to ask for a favor, someone you would be ready to answer to your
Monday, February 3, 2020
No Smoking Employees - Essay Example Furthermore, a smoking employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s health plan and insurance premiums are higher compared to non-smokers. This means higher health care and medical costs for the employers. Moreover, employers are also concerned about the risk of second hand smoke on their non-smoking employees. This could also result in higher medical costs for them, so they would not like to expose their other employees to the health hazards of second hand smoke. Employers perceive hiring smokers as going against their clean indoor air policy. In most areas, refusal to hire smokers does not constitute unlawful discrimination. Federal law prohibits employers from discriminating against any individual in hiring because of that individualÃ¢â¬â¢s race, color, religion, sex, national origin, citizenship status, age, and disability. In addition, state law also prohibits discrimination in hiring based on height, weight, and marital status. This means that employers can discriminate against smokers because they do not belong to the Ã¢â¬Å"protected groupÃ¢â¬ . Other employers do not hire smokers because they believe that employment requires a high level of physical fitness which means that good health is an essential asset for any job (ASH, par.12).
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Modern Families And Traditional Families Sociology Essay Families are changing all over the world. What we see as a family some years back is different. There has been a lot of transition from traditional towards modern families. It is sometimes because of technology but most importantly it evolves around the culture and how different people have adapted to different cultures. (The Future of Families to 2030) Families; now and then: A few years back, concept of a family was different. In different cultures family was considered parents raising their children and all of them living together raising children and grandchildren together. The aunts and uncles were part of families and were significant other. Three generations were considered to be a single family who are living together; but now the concepts of families have totally changed. Your significant others now days are only the parents or your siblings. At a time one or two generations make a family. This change does not vary on a cultural basis but it is seen to be adapted universally. (The Future of Families to 2030) Modern families Vs. Traditional Families: The book marks different examples and compares both stereotypes of families. The traditional families vary from modern families in a lot of ways. Example of primitive Chineses societies is given where is mentioned how the family works on the farm together play their role and act as one unit. Each of the family members has separate shares of land and they get divided when children grow up. To avoid this, primitive families gave the land to the eldest son. Further, traditional families have an advantage that the families stay close together with a strong bond. (Kong) On the other side, living together can cause number of disputes and disagreements as well; larger the family, more the ways of thinking and more conflict of ideas. To keep this thing in place, a head of mainly is made who is mostly the eldest male member of the family. All the family decisions are in his hand. He is to decide whether to talk about and take a certain decision or not. This creates loos of freedom as no one is to take decisions independently and one loses the right of how to conduct certain things in the family. In traditional families, more is talked about bonds and staying together like family as a single unit; but now days more is being focused in individuality; people like to think about themselves first and then about significant others. Individuality has given rise to equality and in case of families all family members must be equal together. This is a concept which has been adopted by the modern families where each of the family members has say in the family decisions and everything is based on equality. This style of family is healthy at one side but it is also has a demerit; this type of families ruin the traditional values which elders kept safe throughout the generations. The respect of elders is becoming less. Parents living together with grandchildren are considered a burden. Whatever the type of family is and in whatever culture or society we reside; but universally a family is where the love and care takes start. After a bad day; when everything comes to an end; you are always looking towards family as a last place of comfort. Families are there to support you and help you without being judgmental. (Kong) Change in fertility and family planning from past to future: There has been a lot of change in the family planning and idea of number of children. The fertility levels and family size have a lot of difference in the past as compared to today and in future. The fertility and family size has been changed not only because of the change in traditions and culture but growing population has become a global concern as well. There are many other reasons as well which have led to a different family pattern and size. (2011) Now days everything and even the way of living has changed, now people like to have less but the best of all the options available. Same is the case with families; now days what parents commonly think is that to provide their children and family with the best options like education, standards of living and much more, it becomes impossible in the case when you have large families; so smaller families are a way to get all of this in todays world. Secondly, the trend of late marriages has also stepped in where now the people like to focus on their career and education before they plan to settle; late marriages lower the level of fertility and leads to less number of children but who are grown in the healthiest manner. Thirdly, are the advancements in contraceptions and change in society marriages. Gay marriages are legal in most of the countries leading to smaller family sizes and advancement is contraception which was absent in the past have led to smaller families. The fertility level and the family size and trends have changed a lot from past to the future. (2011) The change in partnership patterns: Families in the past were happy to live together for all their lives; the early marriages concept was common. People were not allowed to take bold decisions or to think about themselves; but as education came in and people became more aware about their rights; they started to think about themselves; hence changing the partnership patterns. (2011) In past; marriages used to last long, but in future trends will be different because of high divorce rates. People think about themselves individually now and equality also plays an important role. Gender biasness has decreased a lot which maintains both the husband and wife rights equally and when they are not being fulfilled people go to look for other options like divorce and separation. This in future will result in families with number of single parents. (2011) Same is the case with gay marriages; in future number of families will be with same gendered parents living together and raising families at their best. The change in children behavior: There are number of changes seen in the behavior of children as compared to how they behaved a century back. Now days children like to be and stay independent after they start to earn or turn eighteen. Children move out of the parents home and stay with friends or partners and look for an independent life. (2011) (The Future of Families to 2030) In the past, this idea was rarely seen. Parents home was the childrens home and they stayed until they got married or even sometimes parents home was the family home where all lived together; children moving out in their teenage has changed the family pattern and the concept of family a lot. Furthermore; as the world move towards globalization; studying and settling abroad has become very common as soon as we become global citizens. Children move out for higher studies and get settled there later on in life which has changed the family concept and pattern as compared to the past. Family of the Future: Family of the future seems to be a different term; but if we look upon closely the concept of a family still remains the same; the family is a place which you look forward to after everything. Family is about companionship and staying together in hearts no matter wherever you are. The transition which the families have gone through from past to present towards the future has immense changes but whether modern or traditional family is where an individual belongs to. (The Future of Families to 2030)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Acting and speaking before THINKING, this goes back to a humansÃ¢â¬â¢ primitive stage. We are all animals, in the sense that we are mammals. Manifested through our psyche or personality, each animal has a different representation. From personality traits, behavior or even symbolism, animals have the ability to portray these features in humans. In Yann MartelÃ¢â¬â¢s Life of Pi, four distinct animals are manifested in the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s (Pi Patel)spirit. These four animals a zebra, which symbolizes the struggle to survive and docility, the orangutan Ã¢â¬â a nurturing mother personality, the hyena for desperation and evil, then lastly the tiger, Richard Parker which represents perseverance and companionship. When one visits the zoo, the most submissive creature there to see is the zebra. Marked with bold black and white stripes to show endurance, the zebra is still indecisive and unassertive. Relating back to Pi Patel, even from the beginning of the novel he cannot make up his mind about which religion to follow. This shows when his indetermination leads him from being a Muslim, to Hinduism, to Christianity. Also, as the hyena attacks the zebra for food, the animal strives to defend himself by thrashing about the boat. Severely wounded and painfully struggling to fight the battle, zebras determination to stay alive and survive the attack from the hyena. This is also a small wake up call to Pi who is also growing weak day in and day out while a hungry Bengal tiger sleeps only a few feet away. However the need to survive and the life of force is a character trait that the zebra and Pi Patel have in common, not to mention uncertainty.
Friday, January 10, 2020
The Basics of Classification Essay Samples The essay will also have to include examples for each one of the categories included. It's important to not forget that every category ought to have a single base for classification. The categories you select for your essay should be wholly separate. It is crucial to bring together the examples in the appropriate categories to create sense. To aid you with your choice what things to write, classification essay topics in numerous categories are provided below. You may learn a little bit more about classification and division, and review your essay employing the links below. In a good example, a classification essay may involve detailing the different forms of computers. You will need to structure your classification essay around the categories you will utilize in your classification. The Debate Over Classification Essay Samples Don't begin writing your essay with the start or ending, the most essential part is the middle one. The previous part is an overview of the whole essay. It is essential that the essay doesn't appeal to the writer alone. Starting with a fundamental thesis at the start of your work, don't hesitate to polish it later on, once your essay starts to take some shape. A few of the essays may be straight to the point and doesn't require much thinking to make the very first step of writing. A classification essay is designed to help writers learn to organize their thoughts. Afterwards, you merely must stick to the initial plan and make a great paper, dependent on it. It is difficult to find the point without some great classification paper examples. Nonetheless, you always start your paper with an introduction. Before getting down to writing your classification paper, it is advisable should you build an extensive step-by-step outline. If you go to our sample section there are several examples of classification essays it is possible to read for yourself. Or you might want to find some recommendations about how to compose your essay. After you have decided on the topic for a classification essay and have studied it with diverse strategies of writing, you need to be prepared to compose the very first draft. Moreover, now you are in possession of a brilliant classification essay topic, and you may dive right into the practice of essay writing. Our classification and division essay topics are presented here to assist you in case you don't understand what things to write about. While classification essay topics might vary drastically, they will supply you with enough info to make your own outline. Our classification essay topics should enable you to produce your own idea of what things to write in your essay. The excellent topic for a classification essay ought to have some logical point, you could classify. The concluding paragraph provides you a chance to draw together the many types and approaches you've been examining. For example, the classifications could be close relatives, distant relatives and deceased relatives. Ruthless Classification Essay Samples Strategies Exploited Just consider it how many fantastic things you might do instead of boring writing. With our essay help you may be certain nobody shall get a better mark for the work than you. When writing an essay you could first select a fantastic categor y of things that you have better knowledge and comprehension. In your introduction, you might also need to deliver some particular descriptive or informative details to entice the interest of your readers and suggest the goal of the essay. Students utilize example papers for a number of purposes. They lead busy lives and often forget about an upcoming deadline. As an extra precaution, they should send all of their work through plagiarism checking software before they turn it in. As a rule, they should try to find a paper that was written by someone higher than their current grade level. 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